Former convicted hacker and now cybercrime fighter Hieu Minh Ngo spoke at the recently concluded Global Online Scam Summit (GOSS) 2021. He presents his findings on fraud dens, with some being "scam sweatshops" for trafficked Chinese and Southeast Asians forced to work in slave-like conditions.
Hieu Minh Ngo was a Vietnamese hacker and identity thief who was sentenced in 2015 in the United States for stealing as much as hundreds of thousands of personally identifiable information. After his early release he returned to Vietnam to help raise awareness about online scams and cybersecurity issues here and abroad. He now runs a cybersecurity company Chong Lua Dao in Vietnam and works as a technical expert to Vietnam’s National Cybersecurity Center. Source
Other presentations on GOSS 2021
For more reference on reports of human trafficking that is fueling the online gambling/fraud industry in Southeast Asia, see FEATURE-Chinese scammers enslave jobless teachers and tourists in Cambodia (Reuters). This is almost an open secret in Southeast Asia:
As an aside, GASO's live chat also frequently gets appeals for help from self-professed victims trapped in those situations.